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The traffic baton is red to make it more visible as a signaling aid in directing traffic. In Russia traffic batons are striped in black and white for the same reason, and in Sweden they are white.
Until the mids, British police officers carried traditional wooden truncheons of a sort that had changed little from Victorian times.
Since the late s, the collapsible baton is issued except for public order duties, where a fixed, acrylic baton is used. Side-handled batons were issued for a while, but fell out of favour.
In New York , the police used to use two kinds of batons depending on the time. The night-stick was longer so it could provide extra protection which was thought to be necessary at night.
In modern police training, the primary targets are large nerve clusters, such as the common peroneal nerve in the mid-thigh and large, easily targetable muscle groups, such as the quadriceps and biceps.
The baton is swung in fast, "snapping" strikes to these areas, sometimes only making contact with the tip.
Taken together, these are intended to impair the subject's ability to continue advancing by striking the leg or attack by striking the arm by causing transitory neurapraxia temporary muscle pain, spasm and paralysis due to nerve injury.
Modern systems strictly prohibit hitting the skull , sternum , spine , or groin unless such an attack is conducted in defense of life, with many jurisdictions considering this deadly force.
Before the s, a common use of the police baton was to strike a suspect's head with a full-force overhand motion in order to stun them or knock them unconscious by cerebral concussion , similar to the pre-baton practice of buffaloing with the handle of a revolver.
However, this practice had two major liabilities. First, there was a high risk and incidence of death or permanent injury, as the difference in force between that required to concuss a suspect into non-resistance and that which would fracture their skull tends to be narrow and unpredictable.
I've trained over police departments, comprising over ten thousand men. In every class, I ask the officers if they've ever seen a subject subdued with one blow to the head.
None of them ever have. What you're doing when you hit a man in the head is first, creating a serious danger of death, and second, you're numbing the one part of the body that can stop him.
If you use my method with one or two strikes and step back, he realizes that the thing has gone against him, and the confrontation is over.
But if you hit him in the head and put him into a state of shock where he is almost immune to pain, and now enraged beyond reason, the only thing left for you to do is beat him into the ground.
This is why so many police brutality charges came about when batons were used the old-fashioned way. As a result, civil lawsuits and claims of police brutality resulted in revised training for officers.
Hand-held impact weapons have some advantages over newer less-lethal weapons. Batons are less expensive than Tasers to buy or to use, and carry none of the risk of cross-contamination of OC aerosol canisters such as pepper spray in confined areas in houses, if police use pepper spray, the officers may get the spray in their eyes accidentally.
Tasers and OC canisters have limited ammunition, whereas batons use none. Like Tasers and pepper spray, batons are referred to as "less-lethal" rather than "non-lethal".
That is, these weapons are not designed to be fatal, but they can be. The baton is considered to have a greater risk of lethality than most less-lethal weapons, and so is higher on the use of force continuum than Tasers or OC.
While all police weapons can potentially be taken from an officer and used against them, this risk is even greater with batons, as they can be grabbed and pulled away by a suspect if the officer improperly brandishes or swings them.
Batons in common use by police around the world include many different designs, such as fixed-length straight batons, blackjacks, fixed-length side-handle batons, collapsible straight batons, and other more exotic variations.
All types have their advantages and disadvantages. The design and popularity of specific types of baton have evolved over the years and are influenced by a variety of factors.
These include inherent compromises in the dual and competing goals of control effectiveness and safety for both officer and subject.
A straight, fixed-length baton also commonly referred to as a "straightstick" is the oldest and simplest police baton design, known as far back as ancient Egypt.
They are often made of hardwood, but in modern times are available in other materials such as aluminium, acrylic, and dense plastics and rubber.
Straightsticks tend to be heavier and have more weight concentrated in the striking end than other designs. This makes them less maneuverable, but theoretically would deliver more kinetic energy on impact.
Most agencies have replaced the straightstick with other batons because of inconvenience to carry, and a desire for their officers to look less threatening to the community they serve.
Despite having been replaced by side-handle and expandable batons in many if not most law enforcement agencies, straightsticks remain in use by many major departments in the US, such as the Baltimore , Denver , Sacramento , Long Beach , Santa Ana , Philadelphia , San Francisco , and Riverside Police Departments.
They also are used by NYPD Auxiliary Police officers, as well as many Military Police forces around the world.
The best-known example is the Monadnock PR; "PR" has become a genericized trademark within the law enforcement and security communities for this type of product.
Side-handle batons are made in both fixed and collapsible models and may be constructed from a range of materials including wood, poly-carbonate, epoxy, aluminium, or a combination of materials.
Some side-handle batons are one-piece design; the side-handle component and primary shaft are permanently fused together during manufacturing.
One-piece designs are potentially stronger than two-piece designs, and have no risk of having a locking screw loosen from its threads.
Other side-handle batons are two-piece in design common among cheaper makes ; the side-handle component is screwed into the primary shaft.
The side handle may be removed from the shaft by the end-user, converting the side-handle into a straight baton.
The basic rule of the Spanish version was to reach 31 with a minimum of three cards. It is believed that Romans used to play this game with wooden blocks of different numerical values.
This theory holds some weight as Romans loved gambling, but that by no means confirms the theory. It gradually spread to North America thanks to French colonists and soon after it was played throughout the continent.
As well as outlining blackjack strategies, it was one of the first publications to educate readers in the controversial practice of card counting, whereby they could attempt to measure the number of specific cards left in play during a game and how this affected the potential outcomes for the round.
While a minority of skilled gamblers had been engaging in an early form of card counting since the s, the process was now easily accessible knowledge.
In response, casinos increased the number of decks their Blackjack tables used to make card counting harder and trained dealers to spot anyone engaging in it.
Since then, several other notable works have been published in the field of Blackjack strategies and mathematics and the successes people have had in using them, including The Theory of Blackjack by Peter Griffin, Beyond Counting by James Grosjean and The House Advantage by Jeffrey Ma.
Blackjack has remained a thoroughly popular game into the 21st century. It is still amongst the most widely played both at casinos, many of which now have video-based console versions, and their online counterparts such as Pinnacle Casino, which enable people to play Blackjack any time, any place on hundreds of different games.
These include the World Series of Blackjack , the Ultimate Blackjack Tour , the Las Vegas Hilton Million-Dollar Tournament and various World Championships.
In , the Barona Casino in San Diego, California opened the Blackjack Hall of Fame. Inductees include Baldwin, Cantey, Maisel and McDermott, Thorp, Griffin and Grosjean.
Blackjack has also continued to proliferate popular culture with its involvement in the plots of films such as 21 , The Gambler and The Hangover , and as of March , there are over 70 million Google search results for the game.
If you want to learn more on how to inform your Blackjack strategy, remember to read our articles on how to double down , split and surrender , alongside how to place a side bet or insurance bet.
We also have an article outlining an advanced Blackjack strategy. Pinnacle has a wide range of Blackjack games for you to enjoy, including Live Blackjack , Classic Blackjack , Vegas Strip Blackjack and many more!
Catering to all experience levels our aim is simply to empower bettors to become more knowledgeable. The detailed outcome of the hand follows:.
Blackjack has over rule variations. Since the s, blackjack has been a high-profile target of advantage players , particularly card counters , who track the profile of cards that have been dealt and adapt their wagers and playing strategies accordingly.
In response, casinos have introduced counter-measures that can increase the difficulty of advantage play. Blackjack has inspired other casino games, including Spanish 21 and pontoon.
At a casino blackjack table, the dealer faces five to seven playing positions from behind a semicircular table. Between one and eight standard card decks are shuffled together.
At the beginning of each round, up to three players can place their bets in the "betting box" at each position in play. That is, there could be up to three players at each position at a table in jurisdictions that allow back betting.
The player whose bet is at the front of the betting box is deemed to have control over the position, and the dealer will consult the controlling player for playing decisions regarding the hand; the other players of that box are said to "play behind".
Any player is usually allowed to control or bet in as many boxes as desired at a single table, but it is prohibited for an individual to play on more than one table at a time or to place multiple bets within a single box.
In many U. The dealer deals cards from their left the position on the dealer's far left is often referred to as "first base" to their far right "third base".
Each box is dealt an initial hand of two cards visible to the people playing on it, and often to any other players. The dealer's hand receives its first card face up, and in "hole card" games immediately receives its second card face down the hole card , which the dealer peeks at but does not reveal unless it makes the dealer's hand a blackjack.
Hole card games are sometimes played on tables with a small mirror or electronic sensor that is used to peek securely at the hole card. In European casinos, "no hole card" games are prevalent; the dealer's second card is neither drawn nor consulted until the players have all played their hands.
Cards are dealt either from one or two handheld decks, from a dealer's shoe , or from a shuffling machine.
Single cards are dealt to each wagered-on position clockwise from the dealer's left, followed by a single card to the dealer, followed by an additional card to each of the positions in play.
The players' initial cards may be dealt face up or face down more common in single-deck games. On their turn, players must choose whether to "hit" take a card , "stand" end their turn , "double" double wager, take a single card and finish , "split" if the two cards have the same value, separate them to make two hands or "surrender" give up a half-bet and retire from the game.
Number cards count as their natural value; the jack, queen, and king also known as "face cards" or "pictures" count as 10; aces are valued as either 1 or 11 according to the player's choice.
If the hand value exceeds 21 points, it busts, and all bets on it are immediately forfeit. After all boxes have finished playing, the dealer's hand is resolved by drawing cards until the hand busts or achieves a value of 17 or higher a dealer total of 17 including an ace valued as 11, also known as a "soft 17", must be drawn to in some games and must stand in others.
The dealer never doubles, splits, or surrenders. If the dealer busts, all remaining player hands win. If the dealer does not bust, each remaining bet wins if its hand is higher than the dealer's, and loses if it is lower.
If a player receives 21 on the 1st and 2nd card it is considered a "natural" or "blackjack" and the player is paid out immediately unless dealer also has a natural, in which case the hand ties.
In the case of a tied score, known as "push" or "standoff", bets are normally returned without adjustment; however, a blackjack beats any hand that is not a blackjack, even one with a value of Wins are paid out at , or equal to the wager, except for player blackjacks which are traditionally paid at meaning the player receives three dollars for every two bet or one-and-a-half times the wager.
Many casinos today pay blackjacks at less than at some tables; for instance, single-deck blackjack tables often pay for a blackjack instead of Blackjack games almost always provide a side bet called insurance, which may be played when dealer's upcard is an ace.
Additional side bets, such as "Dealer Match" which pays when the player's cards match the dealer's up card, are sometimes available.
After receiving an initial two cards, the player has up to four standard options: "hit", "stand", "double down", or "split". Each option has a corresponding hand signal.
Some games give the player a fifth option, "surrender". Hand signals are used to assist the " eye in the sky ", a person or video camera located above the table and sometimes concealed behind one-way glass.
The eye in the sky usually makes a video recording of the table, which helps in resolving disputes and identifying dealer mistakes, and is also used to protect the casino against dealers who steal chips or players who cheat.
The recording can further be used to identify advantage players whose activities, while legal, make them undesirable customers. In the event of a disagreement between a player's hand signals and their words, the hand signal takes precedence.
Each hand may normally "hit" as many times as desired so long as the total is not above hard On reaching 21 including soft 21 , the hand is normally required to stand; busting is an irrevocable loss and the players' wagers are immediately forfeited to the house.
After a bust or a stand, play proceeds to the next hand clockwise around the table. When the last hand has finished being played, the dealer reveals the hole card, and stands or draws further cards according to the rules of the game for dealer drawing.
When the outcome of the dealer's hand is established, any hands with bets remaining on the table are resolved usually in counterclockwise order : bets on losing hands are forfeited, the bet on a push is left on the table, and winners are paid out.
This is a side bet that the dealer has a ten-value card as the down card, giving the dealer a Blackjack. The dealer will ask for insurance bets from all players before the first player plays.
If the dealer has a ten, the insurance bet pays In most casinos, the dealer then peeks at the down card and pays or takes the insurance bet immediately.
In other casinos, the payoff waits until the end of the play. In face-down games, if you are playing more than one hand, you are allowed to look at all of your hands before deciding.
This is the only time that you are allowed to look at the second hand before playing the first hand. Using one hand, look at your hands one at a time.
Players with a blackjack may also take insurance, and in taking maximum insurance they will win an amount equal to their main wager.
Fully insuring a blackjack against blackjack is thus referred to as "taking even money". There is no difference in results between taking even money and insuring a blackjack.
Insurance bets are expected to lose money in the long run, because the dealer is likely to have a blackjack less than one-third of the time.
However the insurance outcome is strongly anti-correlated with that of the main wager, and if the player's priority is to reduce variance , they might choose to make this bet.
The insurance bet is susceptible to advantage play. It is advantageous to make an insurance bet whenever the hole card has more than a one in three chance of being a ten.
Card counting techniques can identify such situations. Note: where changes in the house edge due to changes in the rules are stated in percentage terms, the difference is usually stated here in percentage points , not percentage.
The rules of casino blackjack are generally determined by law or regulation, which establishes certain rule variations allowed at the discretion of the casino.
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